Martha Ellis Gellhorn (8 November 1908 – 15 February 1998) was an American novelist, travel writer and journalist, considered by The London Daily Telegraph, among others, to be one of the greatest war correspondents of the 20th century.She reported on virtually every major world conflict that took place during her 60-year career. Gellhorn was also the third wife of American novelist Ernest Hemingway, from 1940 to 1945. At the age of 89, ill and almost completely blind, she committed suicide.The Martha Gellhorn Prize for Journalism is named after her.
Gellhorn graduated in 1926 from John Burroughs School in St. Louis and enrolled in Bryn Mawr College in Philadelphia. In 1927, she left before graduating to pursue a career as a journalist. Her first articles appeared in The New Republic. In 1930, determined to become a foreign correspondent, she went to France for two years where she worked at the United Press bureau in Paris. While in Europe, she became active in the pacifist movement and wrote about her experiences in the book, What Mad Pursuit (1934).
After returning to the US, Gellhorn was hired by Harry Hopkins as an investigator for the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. She traveled to report on the impact of the Depression on the United States. Her reports for that agency caught the attention of Eleanor Roosevelt, and the two women became lifelong friends. Her findings were the basis of a collection of short stories, The Trouble I've Seen (1936).
Gellhorn died in London in 1998, aged 89, committing suicide by drug overdose after a long battle with cancer and near total blindness.The Martha Gellhorn Prize for Journalism was established in her honour.
- What Mad Pursuit (1934) her time as a pacifist
- The Trouble I've Seen (1936) Depression-era novella
- A Stricken Field (1940) novel set in Czechoslovakia at outbreak of war
- The Heart of Another, 1941
- Liana, 1944
- The Undefeated, (1945)
- Love Goes to Press: A Comedy in Three Acts, 1947 (with Virginia Cowles)
- The Wine of Astonishment (1948) World War II novel, republished in 1989 as Point of No Return
- The Honeyed Peace: Stories, 1953
- Two by Two, 1958
- The Face of War (1959) collection of war journalism, updated in 1986
- His Own Man, 1961
- Pretty Tales for Tired People, 1965
- Vietnam: A New Kind of War, 1966
- The Lowest Trees Have Tops (1967) a novel
- Travels With Myself and Another (1978)
- The Weather in Africa (1984)
- The View From the Ground (1988) collection of peacetime journalism
- The Short Novels of Martha Gellhorn, 1991
- The Novellas of Martha Gellhorn, 1993
- Nothing Ever Happens to the Brave: The Story of Martha Gellhorn (2000) by Carl Rollyson
- Gellhorn: A Twentieth-Century Life (2004) by Caroline Moorehead
- Selected Letters of Martha Gellhorn (2006), edited by Caroline Moorehead
- Hemingway on the China Front: His WWII Spy Mission With Martha Gellhorn (2007) by Peter Moreira
- Martha Gellhorn: The War Writer in the Field and in the Text (2007) by Kate McLoughlin
- Beautiful Exile: The Life of Martha Gellhorn (2007) by Carl E. Rollyson